|Site 1, Group 1||60||2|
|Site 1, Group 2||227||24|
|Site 1, Group 3||12||1|
|Site 1, Group 4||4||0|
|Site 1, Group 5||13||0|
Site 2 was originally known as the 'Airfield at Lat Sen' when documented by Madeleine Colani. The site comprises megalithic jars spread over two knolls with a road between them. The road, constructed during the French Administration of Laos has caused slope erosion and displacement of some of the jars. The site had previously been excavated by Colani and Sayavongkhamdy but limited data on these research efforts was published. An inventory of the megaliths at the site was led by Andrew Ball in 2017. The site was selected for excavation by PJARP in 2019 and three units were excavated on the western ridge.
Colani first visited what is now known as Site 2 in the autumn of 1931. The site was referred to by her as the Lat Sen airfield as there was an airstrip nearby. She conducted research at Site 2 after her initial visit, documenting the jars and discs at the site which she numbered variously as having “about seventy jars and eleven discs” and elsewhere noting the presence of more than 82 jars. Colani also undertook some excavations at the site although the exact location of these diggings is not clear from her publications. She does note that “At the airfield at Lat Sen …funerary pots buried in the ground stand on a layer of charcoal” (Colani 1935:107). Colani notes that the megalithic jars at Site 2 were not buried to any great depth and that several were broken or damaged by vandals but not to the degree seen at Site 1 (Ban Ang).
She notes that the jars at Site 2 are predominantly of the ‘slender type’ with round apertures with simple rims. Colani (1935) notes the presence of lids, presumably referring to the discs at the site, noting that they are either plain or decorated “some with a simple cupula or a cone, others with these same designs augmented by superimposed discs; in the middle of one of them there is even a little roughed-out anthropomorphic figure, unfinished and broken, extremely primitive”.
Colani examined the contents of 64 of the jars at Site 2 and reports that 39 of these contained ‘terracotta potsherds’ that were mostly grey in color. Four jars contained glass beads. None contained any bone. Her excavations around the jars revealed a number of artefacts as well including; “a fragment of a disc-ring, three axes, one of which has a tang for hafting, three rectangular pendants [and] a fragment of a grinding stone”. She reports also uncovering ceramics ranging in size from small to large, small perforated ceramic weights, bi-truncated cones or spindle-shaped, discs and ear-rings.
Some artefacts in bronze were also found including spiral pendants, fragments of worked small globular bells and an engraved ring. Iron knives with tangs for hafting were also excavated as were glass and carnelian beads and perforated mollusc shells (Cyprea). Colani also reports finding a rectangular pendant of stone but it is poorly described. Ceramics were also uncovered in these excavations including “a small broken pot with small handles made with a coarse paste of whitish mineral elements, including quartz crystals. Another piece of ceramic was described as part of a small cylinder with a blackish paste with similar inclusions. Colani describes a ‘cooking’ pot with two handles with a fine reddish paste and a bowl with a blackish paste and mineral inclusions. She reports finding very few carnelian beads (Colani 1935 v2: 131) and an open ring of bronze with stylised vegative motifs whch she believes was of a recent date and perhaps of exotic origin. Other ceramics are noted to belong to the Song period, found 5-20 cm below surface and she relates them obliquely to the bronze mentioned previously (Colani 1935 v2: 139).
Site 2 has seen no further excavation since Colani’s time but the site was documented in the mid-2000s by a team led by Samlane Luangaphay and Julie Van Den Bergh. They documented two groups of sandstone jars spread over the two hills at the site. In total they recorded 93 jars, 14 discs and 9 stones.
The site was resurveyed in 2017 by a team led by Andrew Ball as part of the Plain of Jars Archaeological Project confirming that there are two groups of jars. The 2017 work documented 35 jars and eight discs in Group 1, the western group and 51 jars and seven discs in Group 2, the eastern group. Preparation for the 2019 research season began on February 18th and involved a meeting with the Xieng Khouang Deputy Director of the Provincial Department of Heritage, Mr Vieng Savanh Keophukoy.
|Site 2, Group E||51||7|
|Site 2, Group W||35||9|
Ban Xiengdi. Site 3 was referred to by Colani as ‘Ban Soua’ and is located a few kilometres to the southwest of Site 2 and consists of seven separate jar clusters. These jar groups range in size from a single jar, to more than 100 jars in the primary group. The groups at Jar Site 3 are characterised by a higher proportion of diagnostic variability, and a larger ratio of stone discs, when compared to Jar Site 1 and Jar Site 2.
According to Van Den Bergh et al.'s account the jar site groups are located on lower hill slope spurs and overlook the expansive plain. The sandstone quarry of the jar resources has been located further up the hill slopes (Site 8).
The groups are located within 6-700 metres of each other (with the exception of Group VI which lies at a distance of 1,200 m).
The site was resurveyed by a PJARP team led by Andrew Ball.
|Site 3, Group 1||158||34|
|Site 3, Group 2||1||0|
|Site 3, Group 3||26||2|
|Site 3, Group 4||16||1|
|Site 3, Group 5||30||1|
|Site 3, Group 6||4||3|
|Site 3, Group 7||7||0|
Ban Lathong, Phou Nasi
According to Van Den Bergh the site is situated in Paek District near the road to the old capital on a gently undulating hilltop. Three heavily damaged sandstone jars occupy this hill which is marked by bomb craters. Archaeological material such as pottery can be found scattered on the surface of this and a nearby hillock. There are also some quartz-rich boulders around the jars.
This may be the site that Colani refers to once in a footnote (Shewan and O'Reilly 2019:510) as Bergerie. See also Genovese (2014):138.
|Site 4, Group 1||3||0|
Ban Phaignam According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site consists of five groups with a total of 11 jars and 38 stones. The groups are in two distinct areas: the first one is close to the existing village and contains three jars. These jars are located immediately alongside a vegetable garden and enclosed by bamboo fencing. The remaining jars are located on an elongated hillock visible from the village; the hillock commands extensive views of the surrounding undulating landscape. The jars are heavily damaged and are set in a crater landscape.
|Site 5, Group 1||3||0|
|Site 5, Group 2||3||0|
|Site 5, Group 3||1||0|
|Site 5, Group 4||3||0|
|Site 5, Group 5||1||0|
According to Van Den Bergh et al. twenty-one jars in total and a single disc were recorded by Van Den Bergh et al. at Ban Xot in four groups. This site may correspond to the four sites of Ban Xot recorded by Colani. She recorded however a significantly higher number of jars in each group, 4, 12, 10 and 12 jars respectively. A newly built road partially destroyed the site in late 2007 and displaced a number of stone jars. The sandstone jars at Ban Xot are massive but tend to have small apertures.
Note: the photo boards in the pictures for this site have been erroneous labelled as Site 27.
|Site 7, Group 1||5||0|
|Site 7, Group 2||10||0|
|Site 7, Group 3||1||0|
|Site 7, Group 4||5||1|
Site 8, has been identified by Van Den Berg as a quarry site. Site 8 is known locally as Huay Luang and comprises five areas where partially completed jars are located on the slopes of the mountain.
The area exhibits evidence of heavy bombardment from the war in Laos with numerous craters apparent among the partially completed jars and rock faces which bear chisel scarring. Preliminary identification of the rock suggests that this mountain is the source of both the Site 2 and Site 3 jars.
In 2023 Plain of Jars Archaeological Research Project members visited Site 8 and deployed a UAV LiDAR to map the quarry. Results of this mission are pending.
|Site 8, Group 1||5||0|
|Site 8, Group 2||2||0|
|Site 8, Group 3||3||0|
|Site 8, Group 4||3||0|
|Site 8, Group 5||4||0|
According to Van Den Bergh et al. Site 9 is located near a village called Ban Phakeo. Site 9 is a small, fine red sandstone quarry site which contains 10 jars. The jars are smallish compared to the jars at the main site; four are unfinished. During UXO clearance five bronze weights were found by Van Den Bergh et al. in close proximity but unrelated to the jars.
|Site 9, Group 1||10||0|
Located near Ban Phakeo.
As reported by Van Den Bergh et al. Site 10 is located on the slope alongside a well-travelled path. The site contains a disc with human representation and a number of unfinished and finished jars. The geological survey concluded that the site is unlikely to have been a quarry site as the structure of the rock source makes it unsuitable for jar manufacturing. In 2017 a second group was found that appears to have been overlooked in the original survey.
|Site 10, Group 1||9||1|
|Site 10, Group 2||19||0|
Called Phu Biac by Skopal and located on western border of Xieng Khouang Province.
A site 11 was identified by Van Den Bergh et al. this small site but this was located somewhere near Ban Phakeo (Site 52) which has two unfinished jars (the photos here are of Van Den Bergh's jars NOT the site identified by Skopal; they are located on a steep path and are prevented from sliding downwards by a clump of trees. This site could be classified as a transport site where the jars have been moved from the quarry and are in transit to the jar site. The jars have been partially formed; it is assumed that the aperture would have been completed once the jars arrived on site.
|Site 11, Group 1||2||0|
Site 12 is located near the village of Ban Pakeo on a mountain ridge. The PJARP team recorded 43 red sandstone jars which are both finished and unfinished; six discs were also recorded.
According to Van Den Bergh et al. there is no geological or archaeological evidence that the jars were manufactured at this location, although the site is stepped, leaving the impression that the mountain may have been quarried.
|Site 12, Group 1||43||6|
Ban Thoume, San Phou Naluang. According to Van Den Bergh et al. this small site which is situated in Khun District contains 3 jars and a single disc.
The jars and disc are hewn out of granite and the jars appear damaged and vulnerable.
The site is located on a hill slope of Phou Naleung and is surrounded by rice fields and mountains. An ancient temple, Wat Kau lies to the north of the site. The site these days can easily be reached by road.
This site may be what Colani refers to as Na Nong (Shewan and O'Reilly 2019:219). Colani recorded 34 granite jars and a lot of stone debris. She found a large granite disc decorated with a human figure with legs spread and arms raised. This disc was removed to Phonsavan. The disc's current whereabouts is unknown.
|Site 13, Group 1||3||1|
According to Van Den Bergh et al. Natad is recorded as a granite quarry site. The environs exhibit open tectonic joints with orientations that would form cubic or rectangular blocks which would be suitable for quarrying. Direct evidence for quarrying, however, was not found. The site contains some roughouts of jars and is located a mere kilometre from the village on the bottom of a hill slope. The site is in a forested area and close to a stream.
|Site 14, Group 1||1||0|
Huay Far Par. According to Van Den Bergh et al. it can be presumed that this site is the quarry for Ban Thoume (Site 13). The site contains unfinished jars only and is around 1 km to the east from Ban Thoume. The site is surrounded by rice fields and thick forest with granite boulders on the slopes and is near a small stream. Site 16, Ban Phai is located 4 km from this quarry site.
|Site 15, Group 1||1||0|
Ban Phai. According to Van Den Bergh et al. Ban Phai is located 6 km to the northeast of old Xieng Khouang in Khun district. The site is relatively small and has 36 jars, of which 35 are granite and 1 sandstone. The site is currently located immediately along a secondary road leading to a charcoal factory, and onwards to Muang Phan. Road improvements in 2006 led directly to the destruction of one of the jars located alongside the road. The site is slightly elevated but lacks the expansive views often found at jar sites largely because it is surrounded by forest. The granite jars are severely weathered and in poor condition. A well-worn path traverses the site. The site was cleared of UXO in 2007, 3 ‘bombies’ were successfully removed from the site.
This site *may* be the site of Ban Nakham which was documented by Parmentier in 1912 and Colani in 1940.
|Site 16, Group 1||36||1|
Ban Boutai. According to Van Den Bergh et al. This jar site is situated in Khoun district and is relatively easy to access by road in the dry season. The site has 5 groups and counts 37 sandstone jars and 4 discs. The site is surrounded by rice fields and a pond and two of the groups are actually located within the village. Group III contains the lion share of the jars and is located on a gentle hill to the east of Ban Bouatai. The majority of the jars are broken.
|Site 17, Group 1||9||3|
|Site 17, Group 2||6||0|
|Site 17, Group 3||21||0|
|Site 17, Group 4||1||0|
|Site 17, Group 5||1||0|
Ban Buatai, Phou Him Mong.
According to Van Den Bergh et al. this site is one of the best examples of a jar quarry site recorded so far. The site is located on the east-facing slope of a hillock. The quarried area measures 100 metres long by 50 metres down the slope. Preliminary investigation revealed that 57 jars may have been extracted from this quarry. These results fit in well with the jar numbers found in the vicinity: 37 at Ban Bouatai and 8 at a group in close proximity to the quarry site.
|Site 18, Group 1||8||0|
Ban Khangvieng. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site consists of a single jar. The broken jar is located in front of a house in the village.
|Site 19, Group 1||1||0|
Ban Hai. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site has four groups with a total of 21 conglomerate jars. The fragmented jars are located on a forested hill about 2 km from the village of Ban Hai. A road which leads to Ban Phiangxai runs alongside the site.
|Site 20, Group 1||8||1|
|Site 20, Group 2||6||0|
|Site 20, Group 3||2||0|
|Site 20, Group 4||5||0|
There are an estimated 341 jars at the site in various stages of completion spread up the slope of this mountain that attains a height of over 1400m asl. The site has been confirmed as the source of the sandstone jars found at Site 1, some 8km distant. To date, this is the largest known quarry in Xieng Khouang Province for megalithic jars. The quarrying process can be followed through various stages at Phukeng. Unfortunately, the area was heavily bombed during the war and the site has not yet been cleared of UXO, limiting the investigation. The unfinished or rock source for the jars can be found on the steep hills of the mountain. Jars are also located on the lower, gentler slopes leading to the main quarry area; it is possible that these jars were being transported to Site 1 but were abandoned for unknown reasons.
|Site 21, Group 1||16||0|
|Site 21, Group 10||5||0|
|Site 21, Group 11||4||0|
|Site 21, Group 2||3||0|
|Site 21, Group 3||2||0|
|Site 21, Group 4||1||0|
|Site 21, Group 5||1||0|
|Site 21, Group 6||1||0|
|Site 21, Group 7||1||0|
|Site 21, Group 8||3||1|
|Site 21, Group 9||1||0|
Ban Hin, Phou Tham Hua.
According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site has a single group with 10 sandstone jars. The site is located in a wooded area high in the hills and many of the jars were damaged by trees roots. The site lies at approximately one hour walking distance from the village of Ban Hin.
Ban Hin was already recorded by Colani (Shewan and O'Reilly 2019:240-241). While this site may be the same as the site visited by Colani, she noted 16 jars, of which only 4 were in good condition.
Colani writes; "The field is situated two kilometres south-west of Ban Hin (Ban Na Hin) in mountainous country; it is shaded by the tall trees of a wilderness of forest. Sixteen jars were set up in a picturesque location by a path, on a sort of little crest which slopes gently from west to east. They are of quartzy sandstone; and they have been subject to the same disintegration by reaction to the atmosphere as at Ban Sieng Kieu.
At the surface, and for very few centimetres under it, the ground is beige-coloured earth containing roots of phanerogams; it is clayey and gradually becomes a brilliant reddish-brown. The monolithic vessels are set deep into the earth, some of which may have been brought down more recently from the mountain-top, from west to east. Two of the jars are lying down; the others are standing. Dimensions (fig. 120) are broadly those found at Ban Sieng Kieu. The jars are roughly all of the same slimmer type (plate XXXIII), some of them have a small inner ledge just below the opening. In one jar there is a round aperture low on one side (plate XXXIII, 1 & 2).
The fashioning is the same as at Ban Sieng Kieu. There is a single (presumed) stone lid (plate XXXIII, 2 & 3), extremely simple, in the shape of a spherical cap; it may have sat on top of the jar, barely overlapping its rim."
|Site 22, Group 1||10||1|
Ban Nam Hom. Four groups of jars. Groups 1 and 2 are close to one another (just under 30 m apart). Group 3 is 346m east of Group 1 and Group 4 is 114 m southwest of Group 1.
According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site is located near the Hot Springs in Muang Kham. It consists of four groups (36 jars), of which one is a quarry site. The groups are located close to each other on two spurs overlooking the expansive Muang Kham valley. The jars have been manufactured out of massive conglomerate and breccia. This is the only site to date where breccia jars have been recorded. The site was cleared of UXO in 2007.
|Site 23, Group 1||7||0|
|Site 23, Group 2||1||0|
|Site 23, Group 3||22||0|
|Site 23, Group 4||2||0|
Ban Phiangxai. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site is located on a forested mountain ridge and consists of 2 groups with 3 jars. The poor condition of these conglomerate jars is due to the accentuated weathering of the bedding planes which is making them very susceptible to breakage.
|Site 24, Group 1||4||0|
|Site 24, Group 2||1||0|
Ban Songhak. The site is notable due to the presence of military trench works dating to the conflict in the 1960s and '70s.
According to Van Den Bergh et al. Ban Songhak’s jar site is located on undulating hills in close proximity of the current village. The jar site comprises 40 jars in five groups. The main jar group is surrounded by trees. The villagers are afraid to awaken the spirits by cutting the wood or causing disturbance at the jar site and this has resulted in little damage to jars in recent decades. Some damage was sustained during the war and Pathet Lao trenches are located very close to the main jar group. The site has expansive views over the surrounding Phukoot plain including the ancient stupa to the Southwest. The main group contains some andesite jar pre-forms which may have been brought to Songhak from 8 km away. The site was cleared of UXO in 2007.
|Site 25, Group 1||17||0|
|Site 25, Group 2||2||0|
|Site 25, Group 3||3||0|
|Site 25, Group 4||2||0|
|Site 25, Group 5||1||0|
Ban Phouvieng (Nameng). According to Van Den Bergh et al. this site in Phukoot district is located along side the foot of Phukoot Mountain. This mountain which was the site of a Phatet Lao camp during the Secret War was targeted by aerial bombardment which resulted in reducing the level by 7 to 9 meters. The jar site at the foot has been obliterated. Three groups were recorded and a minimum count of the sandstone jar fragments show approximately 13 jars once graced the foot hill.
|Site 26, Group 1||1||0|
|Site 26, Group 2||1||1|
|Site 26, Group 3||11||0|
Ban Sack. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site has two groups and 11 sandstone jars. The site is located on top of hill which is surrounded by steep sides. Both groups are located amidst trees and shrubs. The dip in the surface at Group I may represent evidence of quarrying on site. The jars of Group II have been impacted by cows and all but one jar are fragmentary.
|Site 27, Group 1||3||0|
|Site 27, Group 2||8||2|
Ban Nakuan. According to Van Den Bergh et al. this site has a single jar, which is located at a mountain ridge saddle near the village of Ban Nakuan. The site has spectacular views of the mountains to the northwest. The massive sandstone jar remains in very good condition.
Colani excavated around the jar and the depression the digging left is still visible. The inside of the jar she found empty while around the jar a polished adze, pottery fragments, glass beads, fragments of bronze and iron bracelets and charcoal were excavated.
This site *may* be what Colani called 'The isolated jar at Ban Sak' (Shewan and O'Reilly 2019:243). She writes "The jar is upright, standing in the middle of a path on a pass (altitude about 1,060 metres), approximately two kilometres north of Muong Soui and one kilometre from Ban Sak, a small Kha village. The view is magnificent: ranges of hills with softened contours lie one behind the other, their colours making a delightful effect as they vary in shade from the foreground into the background. Sometimes they criss-cross….The rock of the jar is a type of molasse, quite compact. The jar itself is of the squat type; maximum diameter 2 metres 05; total height 2 metres 45. Its capacity is greater than the exterior volume of the small jars at Ban Sieng Lieu. Round the opening, a small inner ledge has been worked with care" (Shewan and O'Reilly 2019:244).
|Site 28, Group 1||1||0|
Ban Nam Oc Hou. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the jar site of Nam Oc Hou is located in a forest. While Group I is located on the top of the mountain, Group II is approximately 600 metre from group I and closer to the village, but still in a forested area. Both groups are located on ridges surrounded by steep sides. Deep erosion gullies can be seen at Group II. The jar site counts three sandstone jars and a number of roughouts.
|Site 29, Group 1||2||0|
|Site 29, Group 2||1||0|
Ban Chomsy, San Phou Ten Yang. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site has one group and a total of 4 sandstone jars. The jars are located on a north-south oriented mountain ridge in a wooded area. Near the jars and on the way to Site 53, concentrations of stones were recorded; these are possibly funerary stones.
|Site 30, Group 1||4||1|
Ban Ang, Phu Nabung.
According to Van Den Bergh et al. The site is located at a high elevation in a forested area at a distance of not more than 4-500 metres of Ban Ang village. The site consists of three groups with a total of 9 jars; the groups are close but separated by a road.
This site is one of two which has a jar with apertures on both ends.
This site possibly corresponds with Colani’s 'Unnamed Site' near Site Ban Si. She, however, recorded two jars with double aperture.
|Site 31, Group 1||2||1|
|Site 31, Group 2||2||2|
|Site 31, Group 3||7||0|
Ban Xiengkieu, San Phou Getlin. According to Van Den Bergh et al. The jar site has two groups and counts 33 sandstone jars. The site is situated on Naluang hill, a lower foothill with flat top. The sparsely forested site is 2 km from Ban Sieng Kieu and a road runs along the site. The site has a single stone lid and few of the jars are in good condition.This site was visited by Colani who refers to it as Ban Sieng Kieu. She reported approximately 40 jars and three discs (Shewan and O'Reilly 2019:238). She writes; "the quartzy molasse that the jars are made of disintegrates and crumbles when touched...The dimensions of the stone jars are not large, the tallest (no. 21) standing at 1 metre 70 (fig. 117); and none of the others, with a single exception, measures even 1 metre 50 (two of them are barely one metre long). They are of the rather slimmer type (fig. 118). The few apertures that remain intact are round; inside almost all of them, a little ledge...Only three stone lids (presumed lids) were found, one of which is rather queer (plate XXXII, 2), being a large disc topped in the middle by a small pastille shape. The others were of a type unfamiliar to us, a concave spherical cap (plate XXXII, 3 & 4); its dimensions suggest that it sat on top of a corresponding jar but did not fit inside it; perhaps a wooden stopper was fitted on the little inner ledge."
"In the earth round the jars: ground stone, an axe. Pottery: potsherds, some decorated. Glass: a few beads. Metals: bronze, very sparse traces; iron, numerous knives with tangs; some pieces fitted with sockets, including arrow-heads or blades of short spears (plate LXXV, 5 & 6). Charcoal."
|Site 32, Group 1||7||1|
|Site 32, Group 2||24||1|
Ban Hok, San Phou Hok. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site which has four groups is located on the lower foot hills of a steep mountain; two of the groups are located slightly further down the slope. The site consists of 9 jars of which three are unfinished. The unfinished jars and surroundings suggest that the quarry is nearby or even at the site itself. Group IV of the site was discovered when the area was burned for dry rice cultivation.
|Site 33, Group 1||4||0|
|Site 33, Group 2||2||0|
|Site 33, Group 3||2||0|
|Site 33, Group 4||1||0|
Ban Xang, Nam Oun. According to Van Den Bergh et al. this jar site is located in close proximity to the small hot springs. The jars are located in the valley near the river. The area is under cultivation further abrading the already very fragmented jars. The site counts two groups with 7 jars. The jars are carved out of limestone.
|Site 34, Group 1||4||0|
|Site 34, Group 2||3||0|
Ban Nathong, San Phou Kokhe. According to Van Den Bergh et al. this jar site is located on the lower hill slopes of a steep mountain. Three sandstone jars are recorded on a steep slope surrounded by small trees and shrubbery. One of the jars is lying down and is in perfect condition, the other two are broken. The area was formerly used for rice growing.
|Site 35, Group 1||3||0|
Ban Sai. According to Van Den Bergh et al. Site 36 is located at the lower hill slopes of a steep mountain approximately 10m from a stream. The area is marshy and wet and is heavily overgrown. The site has three unfinished jars and could be interpreted as a transport site as there is no fine sandstone rock source at this particular site.
|Site 36, Group 1||3||0|
Ban Sikhoun. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site is located on a forested lower hill slope about 1 km from Ban Sikhoun. The site has a single sandstone jar which is lying on its side and is partially buried.
|Site 37, Group 1||1||0|
Phu Biac. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site is a single group with three sandstone jars. The site is located in a flat upland area. A path crosses the site and links Ban Phonekham and Ban Sikhoun. All the jars are broken. This site possibly corresponds to Colani’s Ban Nam Ngum site where she recorded 8 sandstone jars.
|Site 38, Group 1||3||0|
Ban Phonekham. According to Van Den Bergh the site is one of three sites where lenticular limestone jars were recorded. The lenticular limestone is very porous and the jars have suffered extreme weathering leaving them in a poor condition. Due to the tectonic structure of the Plain of Jars plateau, the rock source is found in low-lying areas or at the base of the foothills and not in the surrounding high ground. The site has 2 groups and 11 jars. The site is located on a small hill to the west of the village and is surrounded by mountains. There is a contemporary cemetery at the site.
|Site 39, Group 1||4||0|
|Site 39, Group 2||7||0|
Ban Namthoum. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site contains 9 jars in two groups. A single jar is located in the village near the house of the Naiban. The main group of jars is located approximately 200m west of the village. The village which is surrounded by long grasses and short scrub is situated on a high pass between mountain peaks. Half of the jars in the main group are in poor condition. The breaks appear to be along natural line of weakness and to be old breaks. A new road leads to the village.
Skopal et al. put the jars in one group.
|Site 40, Group 1||9||0|
Ban Tha, Phou En Kha. According to Van Den Bergh et al. a single very fragmentary lenticular limestone jar was found at this site. The jar is located on a gently undulating hill which is an old rice field taken over by shrub.
|Site 41, Group 1||1||0|
Phu Xang. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site is located along a mountain ridge in Kham district. The site consists of 5 groups and no less than 90 jars were counted. The jars, lids and discs have been carved out of fine red sandstone. One of the lids has a loop enabling the lifting of the lid by placing a stick through the hole (FIGURE). The site is a combination of quarry and jar site and the rock source protrudes at the site.
|Site 42, Group 1||62||3|
|Site 42, Group 2||42||0|
|Site 42, Group 3||15||3|
|Site 42, Group 4||4||0|
|Site 42, Group 5||4||0|
|Site 42, Group 6||5||0|
Phakhom Phu Hai Hin. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site has two groups with 35 lenticular limestone jars recorded. It is located on forested undulating hills. The area was previously used for rice cultivation and this has caused extensive damage to the vulnerable jars. A number of jars have been closed off on top by a small stone. In addition, farmers have carved holes at the bottom to reuse the jars as chicken coops.
|Site 43, Group 1||22||0|
|Site 43, Group 2||14||0|
Phu Namkhun, Sangniac Nongpek. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site is located on a steep, west-facing slope to the south of Muang Kham (approximately 5 km). The heavily forested site is surrounded on three sides by mountains. It lies in a wooded area with big trees. The site counts 13 sandstone jars. The site comprises of a series of steeply faced excavated bays that consist of very fine-grained sandstone mainly massive. However, there were a number of abandoned unfinished jars that displayed a multitude of failures. These failures include wedge failures, where two discontinuities meet enabling a triangular piece of rock to be released and planar failures, where a slice of rock is released when a weak plane separates from the rock mass. It was also noted that one of the jars had the start of a 100mm diameter hole in what would have become a sidewall.
|Site 44, Group 1||4||0|
|Site 44, Group 2||9||0|
Ban Nasel, San Phou Huathum. According to Van Den Bergh et al. at Site 45, 6 jars were recorded in a single group. The site is located on a hill and the village of Ban Nasel is a kilometre away. The massive jars with small apertures are surrounded by natural stone and forest of Paek trees.
|Site 45, Group 1||6||0|
Ban Ang, Phu Nasan. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site consists of a single group with 2 jars. These sandstone jars are lying down and are massive with small apertures. They are located alongside a road in a wooded area.
|Site 46, Group 1||2||0|
Ban Thalin. According Van Den Bergh et al. the site is positioned on lower mountain slopes in a forested area. A total of 85 jars were recorded at this site; the jars appear very fragmented. This is due to accentuated weathering of the bedding planes of the conglomerate jars at Ban Thalin which makes them more susceptible to breakage. The area is used for dry rice cultivation.
|Site 47, Group 1||83||1|
|Site 47, Group 2||2||0|
Ban Nam Nai. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the jars in Group I are very small and are buried up to their rims in the soil, in contrast to those in Group II and III, where the jars rest on ground surface. The groups are positioned on two hills on the fringe of an upper valley and are separated by a new road. The area of Groups II and III was recently used for agriculture and the jars which are not buried are broken and damaged. A total of 17 granite jars were recorded.
|Site 48, Group 1||10||0|
|Site 48, Group 2||4||0|
|Site 48, Group 3||3||0|
Ban Phiang Na Phoi.
According to Van Den Bergh et al. at Ban Phiang Na Pho, there are in excess of 60 granite jars. In the surrounding fields there are a number of small granite outcrops. It is believed that either small outcrops or local corestones may have been the source for these jars. The site is located near rice fields on the lower slopes of the mountain where it meets the upland valley.
Genovese (2014) believes this site *may* correspond to the site Colani referred to as the Song Meng group - comprising sites she names J38 and QS39.
Colani's Song Meng is more likely to be Site 88.
|Site 49, Group 1||61||0|
Ban Huayhok. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site is located on an extensive mountain ridge located between the sites of Ban Phakeo and Thanlin, in the valley to the southwest, and to the south of the central plain. The jars on the site are concentrated in a fairly small area which has few trees. The major impact to the jars has been caused by contemporary Hmong graves. Fragments of the sandstone jars have been used to cover the burial mounds. The village of Ban Huayhok is about 200m away from the site and can be reached easily by a trail. The site counts 23 fine red sandstone jars.
|Site 50, Group 1||23||0|
Ban Sang Luang According to Van Den Bergh et al. this is a site that contains 15 weathered granodiorite jars and two discs. The surrounding topography suggests that most of the jar rims previously would have been level with the surrounding ground, but that the area around has been excavated to expose the jars. The site is located to the east of the village at a distance of approximately 2 km. The village can be accessed by road. The site is surrounded by forest and steep slopes. The villagers report illegal excavation by outsiders at the site. This site referred to by Genovese (2015:122) as J40.
|Site 51, Group 1||7||2|
|Site 51, Group 2||6||0|
|Site 51, Group 3||2||0|
Ban Phakeo. The site of Ban Phakeo contains six groups with over 400 jars. The fine sandstone jars have been carefully carved and the site has a number of stone lids. A lot of the jars have been smashed and the groups are littered with sandstone fragments. The site is located on a forested mountain ridge. Here too some contemporary Hmong graves are located amongst the jars. The site was cleared of UXO in 2007. Site 52 was selected for excavation in 2017 by the PJARP team and eight locations were investigated.
|Site 52, Group 1||115||44|
|Site 52, Group 2||81||52|
|Site 52, Group 3||195||70|
|Site 52, Group 4||24||15|
|Site 52, Group 5||12||1|
|Site 52, Group 6||1||0|
San Phu Niathau. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the single sandstone jar is located on a north-south oriented mountain ridge. It is surrounded by a concentration of stones which are possibly funerary stones. This single jar is located at approximately 800 metres from Site 30 on the same ridge.
|Site 53, Group 1||1||0|
Ban Vangkham. According to Van Den Bergh et al. a single jar is located on the lower hill slopes near the village. A path runs alongside the jar. This sandstone jar has been cut down to use as an animal drinking trough.
|Site 54, Group 1||1||0|
Ban Chomsy, Khum Vangkham. According to Van Den Bergh et al. two unfinished jars are situated on a lower hillock to the north of the village across a river. The sandstone jars are located on the eastern extremity of the hill and surrounded by steep slopes. This area is used for cow grazing.
|Site 55, Group 1||2||0|
Phu Biac. According to Van Den Bergh et al. this site has a single sandstone jar. The jar is situated within the field of a farmer. The landscape is one of rolling upland hills and the jar is positioned on an elevation from which it has commanding views over the area.
|Site 56, Group 1||1||0|
Ban Ang. According to Van Den Bergh et al. this site consists of a single jar located in the village of Ban Ang. The jar is located near the temple.
|Site 57, Group 1||1||0|
Ban Phiangxai. According to Van Den Bergh the site is located on a mountain ridge and consists of 3 groups with 9 jars. The conglomerate jars are generally massive and in reasonable condition. Where the conglomerate exhibits close bedding however, such as at Ban Phiangxai, the jars are very fragmented and in poor condition. The area has been used recently to plant corn which has accelerated the damage.
|Site 58, Group 1||3||0|
|Site 58, Group 2||5||0|
|Site 58, Group 3||1||0|
Ban Nasel. According to Van Den Bergh et al. the site consists of a single jar which is situated a mere 7m from the village. Site 45 is located in close proximity (800 metres) to this jar.
|Site 59, Group 1||1||0|
Ban Ang. This site was visited and geolocated by Skopal and Bounxayhip in 2020.
|Site 61, Group 1||2||0|
Ban Nong: Nong village, Khoun district. This site was visited and geolocated by Skopal and Bounxayhip in 2020. While an earlier survey noted 21 jars at Ban Nong (DoH 2019), Skopal and Bounxayhip recorded one group of 31 sandstone jars and two sandstone discs, situated on a gently sloping spur with views over the surrounding landscape. Two of the jars are buried just below the rim, while the remainder are standing. The jars have flat and recessed inner rim styles. No stone source was identified in the near vicinity.
|Site 62, Group 1||31||2|
Ban Khap. This site was visited and geolocated by Skopal and Bounxayhip in 2020.
|Site 63, Group 1||2||0|
Phu Buoc Kuong (Nakham Area): Phou Seo village, Phoukoot district. The Xieng Khouang Provincial Government previously noted six jars at Phu Buoc Kuong. This site was revisited and geolocated by Skopal and Bounxayhip in 2020 at which time they recorded 12 sandstone jars, two discs, and multiple sub-spherical stones across two groups situated along a ridge line with views over the surrounding landscape. The jars feature flat and recessed inner rim plus outer rim styles, and one jar, shaped on its exterior, has no cavity. Group 1 features seven jars, a disc, and multiple subspherical stones measuring 500–700 mm in diameter and a measurable height of between 200 and 600 mm, with three of the jars standing and four recumbent. Group 2 features five jars and one disc, which forms what appears to be a quarry, with the jars unfinished and surrounded by a number of stone outcrops.
|Site 64, Group 1||7||4|
|Site 64, Group 2||5||1|
Phu Soung A. This site was visited and geolocated by Skopal and Bounxayhip in 2020. It comprises two groups of jars, the first with 14 jars the second with three.
This may be the same site that Eleanor Colani visited called Pou Suong (M. Colani notes she did not visit the site).
According to Colani there are three groups of jars and burial stones concealed under thick undergrowth. She notes the site is 5km east-north-east of the site she called Ban Na Séo, 'field of burial stones' which may refer to Ban Nasel near Sites 45 and 59.
|Site 65, Group 1||14||2|
|Site 65, Group 2||3||1|
Ban Buoc Nam (Phu Huang Chon). This site was visited and geolocated by Skopal and Bounxayhip in 2020.
|Site 66, Group 1||2||2|
|Site 66, Group 2||6||0|
|Site 66, Group 3||2||0|
|Site 66, Group 4||4||0|
Ban Pha Tai: Pha Tai village, Phaxay district. This site was visited and geolocated by Skopal and Bounxayhip in 2020.
Site 67 is also known as Ban Pha Tai for the small, nearby village. There are nine jars distributed across two groups.
Group 1 features seven jars positioned on a low-lying spur a few meters above the surrounding paddy farmland. Two granite outcrops sit at the base of the group, and there is evidence of quarrying activity with some incomplete jars in situ and some completed buried jars nearby, one of which was excavated in February 2020 by PJARP.
Group 2, located 165 m northeast of Group 1, on slightly raised terrain overlooking the surrounding farmland, originally comprised two buried granite jars.
The two buried jars in Group 2 were dug out by the landowners in early 2019 as they were constructing a dwelling. One of the jars bears a carving near the rim (180 × 230 mm) depicting an inverted anthropomorphic figure (with the head pointing towards the base of the jar).
In 2020 a rescue excavation was conducted at Ban Pha Tai as the landowners indicated they would remove the rest of the jars in the near future. One buried jar was excavated and the results of this excavation have been published in Archaeological Research in Asia (2022).
|Site 67, Group 1||2||0|
|Site 67, Group 2||7||0|
San Phu Huang Hok. This site was visited and geolocated by Skopal and Bounxayhip in 2020.
|Site 69, Group 1||9||0|
Na Mon: Phoung Village, Phasai district The Xieng Khouang Provincial Government previously noted 11 jars and one disc at Na Mon. Skopal and Bounxayhip confirmed these and recorded a further 5 jars.
Nine of the jars are made from granite and the remaining 7 from sandstone. The site is positioned on a flat expanse along a ridgeline with no discernible views due to thick vegetation. The jars have flat and outer rim styles with 14 of the 16 jars buried to the rim. There is no observable stone source in the vicinity.
On January 9th, 2023 a report was received that this site had been destroyed during road construction. It was reported that a majority of the jars were displaced and completely damaged.
|Site 70, Group 1||11||1|
|Site 70, Group 2||4||0|
|Site 70, Group 3||1||0|
Ban Phakeo. This site was tentatively name Q5 (near Site 52) and documented in 2017. It was re-visited and geolocated by Skopal and Bounxayhip in 2020.
|Site 71, Group 1||9||0|
Phu Hai Chuong: Lang Jong Village, Phoukoot district The Lao Department of Heritage noted 68 jars at Phu Hai Chuong in the first survey. Skopal and Bounxayhip since that time recorded a further 20 sandstone jars, one disc, and multiple boulders, distributed over two groups positioned on a flat, forested area at the summit of a mountain, with views over the lower landscape obstructed by vegetation.
The jars are in both the standing and recumbent positions, with 31 jars appearing unfinished. The jars feature flat and recessed inner rim styles. Group 1 features 6 jars, with what appears to be three additional jars buried in the recumbent position, although further investigation is required to confirm this. Group 2, located ca. 25 m to the southeast of Group 1, features 82 jars and one disc surrounded by multiple rock outcrops and boulders.
|Site 79, Group 1||67||5|
|Site 79, Group 2||9||0|
|Site 79, Group 3||6||0|
|Site 79, Group 4||6||0|
Ban Chim. This site was visited and geolocated by the Department of Heritage in 2012 and excavations undertaken there. There are nine groups of jars which have since been removed to an unknown location due to the flooding of the area that was to be caused due to construction of a dam.
|Site 80, Group 1||3||0|
|Site 80, Group 2||1||0|
|Site 80, Group 3||1||0|
|Site 80, Group 4||1||0|
|Site 80, Group 5||1||0|
|Site 80, Group 6||1||0|
|Site 80, Group 7||1||0|
|Site 80, Group 8||1||0|
|Site 80, Group 9||1||0|
Q1 near Site 52 discovered 2017
|Site 81, Group 1||21||0|
Originally Site 52 Q2
|Site 82, Group 1||20||0|
Naho: Ban Naho village, Khoun district. Skopal and Bounxayhip recorded 24 standing jars, some buried up to near the rim, made predominantly of granite with some sandstone jars present. The jars have flat, recessed inner and recessed inner rim with an outer rim styles. The jars are distributed across three groups, in a valley which has a stream running through it and views of the surrounding paddy fields. Group 1 features 19 jars located ca. 15 m north of the stream. Group 2 features 1 jar ca. 25 m south of Group 1, on the opposite side of the stream. Group 3 features four jars ca. 160 m northwest of Group 1. No stone source was identified in the near vicinity.
|Site 85, Group 1||19||0|
|Site 85, Group 2||3||0|
|Site 85, Group 3||1||0|
Ban Khek: Khek village, Khoun district. NOT A JAR SITE. Skopal and Bounxayhip record a possible partially-buried granite jar with a flat rim style and disc situated on a gentle slope overlooking paddy fields. No stone source was identified in the near vicinity. This site was investigated and the identified object excavated but it was found to be a natural object and so NOT a jar site.
|Site 86, Group 1||1||0|
Phu Da Phor: Chim village, Phoukhoun district, Laung Prabang Province, (known by Colani as San Hin Oume). This site contains 21 jars and was visited and geolocated by Skopal and Bounxayhip in 2020.
|Site 87, Group 1||21||0|
Old Village A: Pha Pheung Village, Khoun district.
This site was visited and geolocated by Skopal and Bounxayhip in 2020. It comprises one group of five standing granite jars, buried near to the rim, and one granite disc positioned along a flat ridgeline with views of the surrounding landscape. The jars feature flat and recessed inner rim styles. Large granite deposits in the shape of massive boulders are located ca. 600 m from the site, indicating a potential stone source. Some of the jars are partially buried and some to the rim.
This site may be the site Colani referred to as Song Meng at which she described 7 jars either intact of fragmented and 50 m distant, 5 more. She notes many of the jars are buried and the presence of two monolithic 'lids' (see pg. 216-219 Shewan and O'Reilly 2019).
|Site 88, Group 1||5||1|
Phu Hai Hin: Nong village, Khoun district. This site was visited and geolocated by Skopal and Bounxayhip in 2020. They recorded one group of 27 standing granite jars, two granite discs, and a granite slab which are positioned on a spur with steep sides, with views towards the lower valley. The jars feature flat and recessed inner rim styles. No stone source was identified in the near vicinity. This site may be what Colani refers to as 'Na Nong', where she recorded 34 granite jars.
|Site 90, Group 1||27||2|
San Choc: Phonhome village, Kham district. This site was visited and geolocated by Skopal and Bounxayhip in 2020. They noted one standing limestone jar positioned on a slightly raised saddle near the side of the small valley with views over the surrounding landscape. The rim style could not be determined due to the poor preservation of the jar. A limestone outcrop was noted 40 m northwest of the site which bore some possible chisel marks. The local guides informed the survey team that three limestone jars had previously been found here.
|Site 91, Group 1||1||0|
Ban Na O. Site 1 is the most frequently visited of all the megalithic jar sites in Xieng Khouang. It has sparked interest since the 19th century and has been investigated by Colani (1930s), Nitta (1990s), Sayavongkhamdy (1990s) and the Plain of Jars Archaeological Research Project (in 2016 and 2020).